WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY:
Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, that is concerning one to one hundred nanometers.
Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extraordinarily tiny things and might be used across all the opposite science fields, like chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.
HOW IT STARTED:
The ideas and ideas behind nanoscience associate degreed engineering science started with a chat entitled “There are many spaces at the Bottom” by scientist Richard Feynman at a Yankee Physical Society meeting at the CA Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term engineering science was used. In his speech, nuclear physicist represented a method within which scientists would be able to manipulate and management individual atoms and molecules. Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, academician Norio Taniguchi coined the term engineering science. It wasn’t till 1981, with the event of the scanning tunneling magnifier that might “see” individual atoms, that fashionable engineering science began.
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS IN NANOTECH:
It’s exhausting to imagine simply however tiny engineering science is. One nm could be a billionth of a meter or 10-9 of a meter. Here square measure a couple of illustrative examples:
There square measure twenty-five,400,000 nanometers in an in.
A sheet of newspaper is concerning one hundred,000 nanometers thick
On a comparative scale, if a marble were an nm, then one meter would be the dimensions of the world
Nanoscience and engineering science involve the power to examine and to manage individual atoms and molecules. Everything on Earth is formed from atoms—the food we have a tendency to eat, the garments have a tendency to wear, the buildings and homes we have a tendency to sleep in, and our own bodies.
But one thing as tiny as associate degree atom is not possible to examine with the optic. In fact, it’s not possible to examine with the microscopes generally utilized in a high school science categories. The microscopes required to examine things at the nanoscale were fictitious comparatively recently—about thirty years ago.
Once scientists had the proper tools, like the scanning tunneling magnifier (STM) and also the atomic force magnifier (AFM), the age of engineering science was born.
Although fashionable nanoscience and engineering science square measure quite new, nanoscale materials were used for hundreds of years. Alternate-sized gold and silver particles created colors within the glass windows of medieval churches many years agone. The artists earlier simply didn’t understand that the method they accustomed produce these lovely works of art really crystal rectifier to changes within the composition of the materials they were operating with.
Today’s scientists and engineers square measure finding a large style of ways that to deliberately build materials at the nanoscale to require advantage of their increased properties like higher strength, lighter weight, magnified management of sunshine spectrum, and larger chemical reactivity than their larger-scale counterparts.
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES:
Various techniques of nanolithography like optical lithography, X-ray lithography, dip-pen nanolithography, ray lithography or nanoimprint lithography were additionally developed. Lithography could be a top-down fabrication technique wherever a bulk material is reduced in size to the nanoscale pattern.
Another cluster of nanotechnological techniques embrace those used for fabrication of nanotubes and nanowires, those utilized in semiconductor fabrication like deep ultraviolet lithography, ray lithography, centered inoic beam machining, nanoimprint lithography, atomic layer deposition, and molecular vapor deposition, and more together with molecular self-assembly techniques like those using di-block copolymers. The precursors of those techniques preceded the nanotech era, and are extensions within the development of scientific advancements instead of techniques that were devised with the only real purpose of making technology and that were results of technical analysis.
Nanotechnology could have the flexibility to form existing medical applications cheaper and easier to use in places just like the general practitioner’s workplace and reception. Cars area unit being factory-made with nanomaterials so that they might have fewer metals and fewer fuel to work within the future.
Scientists area unit currently turning to engineering science in an effort to develop diesel engines with cleaner waste. The Platinium is presently used as the diesel catalyst in these engines. The catalyst is what cleans the exhaust fume particles. initial a discount catalyst is utilized to require chemical element atoms from Nox molecules so as to free atomic number 8. Next, the oxidization catalyst oxidizes the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide gas to make greenhouse emission and water. Platinum is employed in each the reduction and also the oxidization catalysts. Using Platinium though, is inefficient therein it’s costly and unsustainable. Danish company InnovationsFonden endowed DKK fifteen million in a very seek for new catalyst substitutes victimization engineering science. The goal of the project, launched within the fall of 2014, is to maximize area and minimize the number of fabric needed.
Objects tend to reduce their surface energy; 2 drops of water, for instance, can be a part of to make one drop and reduce area. If the catalyst’s area that’s exposed to the waste is maximized, the potency of the catalyst is maximized. The team acting on this project aims to make nanoparticles which will not merge. whenever the surface is optimized, the material is saved. Thus, making these nanoparticles can increase the effectiveness of the ensuing diesel catalyst—in flip resulting in cleaner exhaust fumes—and can decrease price. If winning, the team hopes to cut back by 25%.
Some nanoparticle merchandise might have inadvertent consequences. Researchers have discovered that biological process silver nanoparticles employed in socks to scale back foot odor square measure being discharged within the wash. These particles square measure then flushed into the wastewater stream and will destroy bacterium that square measure crucial parts of natural ecosystems, farms, and waste treatment processes.
Public deliberations on risk perception within the North American nation and GB applied by the middle for technology in Society found that participants were a lot of positive regarding nanotechnologies for energy applications than for health applications, with health applications raising ethical and moral dilemmas like value and availableness.